A category being ascribed to something, or something belonging to the category denoted by the governor.

Prototypical prepositions are of (where the governor is the category) and as (where the object is the category):

  • the state of Washington [as opposed to the city] 001

  • The liberal state of Washington has not been receptive to Trump’s message. 002

  • As a liberal state, Washington has not been receptive to Trump’s message. 003

  • I like Bob as a colleague. [but not as a friend] 004

  • What a gem of a restaurant! [exclamative idiom: both NPs are indefinite] 005

  • the problem/task/hassle of raising money 006

  • the age of eight 007

  • They did a great job of cleaning my windows. 008

  • TopicIdentity, with a governing noun in the domain of communication or cognition:

    • the topic/issue/question of semantics 009

    • the idea of raising money 010

Something may be specified with a category in order to disambiguate it #001, or to provide an interpretation or frame of reference with which that entity is to be considered. In some cases, like #009, the category is a shell noun (Schmid, 2000) requiring further specification.

Categorizations may be situational rather than permanent/definitional:

  • She appears as Ophelia in Hamlet. 011

  • He is usually a bartender, but today he is working as a waiter. 012

Paraphrase test: “(thing) IS (category) [in the context of the event]”: “Washington is a liberal state”, “opening a new business is a hassle”, “She is Ophelia”, etc. Note that as+category may attach syntactically to a verb, as in #004 and #011, rather than being governed by the item it describes.

If the object of the preposition is a property (as opposed to a category), the scene role is Characteristic:

See also: ComparisonRef

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Supercategory: Configuration