Secondary action or event presented as playing an intermediate causal role in facilitating (but not instigating) the main event.

Prototypically a volitional action, though not necessarily #004. A volitional Means will often modify an intended result, though the outcome can be unintended as well #003.

  • Open the door by turning the knob. 001

  • They retaliated by shooting/with shootings. 002

  • The owners destroyed the company by growing it too fast. 003

  • Chlorophyll absorbs the light by transfer of electrons. 004

Means is similar to Instrument, which is used for causally supporting entities and is a kind of Participant.

Contrast with Explanation, which characterizes why something happens. I.e., an Explanation portrays the secondary event as the causal instigator of the main event, whereas Means portrays it merely as a facilitator.

Contrast also with Manner. Both Means and Manner elaborate on the how of an event; however, a Manner describes a quality of the main event, rather than specifying a facilitating event.

Construals with role

Construals with function

Category Members (0)

Supercategory: Circumstance