Prototypical Themes undergo (nonagentive1) motion, are transferred, or undergo an internal change of state (sometimes called patients). Adpositional Themes are usually, but not always, construed as something else:
|the approach of the waves 015||the waves' approach 016|
|the death/murder of a salesman 017||the salesman's death/murder 018|
Someone in relation to a time period of their life:
In a commercial scene, goods, services, and money are distinguished. Possession is used as the scene role for goods for sale. Possession also applies to a piece of property transferred between parties, lost, acquired, or carried, even if no money changes hands. Theme is the scene role for commercial services. Cost applies to the money asked, paid, or owed.
When two symmetric undergoers are collected in a single NP functioning as a set, it is marked as a Whole construal:
Often, multiple similarly situated entities meet the criteria for Theme, in which case both are labeled Theme for the scene role. For example, this can occur in concrete scenes of contact, separation, attachment, combination, and substitution of two similar entities.
Multiple Themes can also be licensed by 2-argument adjectives:
Undergoer that is a semantically core participant in an event or state, and that does not meet the criteria for any other label.