Discourse connectives and other markers that transition between ideas or convey speaker attitude/hedging/emphasis/attribution but do not belong to propositional content. Examples include:

This label also covers “additive focusing markers” (Huddleston and Pullum, 2002, p. 592) with a meaning similar to ‘also’ or ‘too’, where an item is added to something already established in the discourse:

  • I shot the sheriff as_well. 002

  • They serve coffee, and tea as_well. 003

It also covers topicalization markers:

  • As_for the sheriff, well, I shot ’im. 004

Finally, `d applies to adpositions relating a metalinguistic mention of a speech act to the speech content itself—whether the adposition introduces this speech act mention, as in #005, or links the discourse expression to a subordinate statement, as in #006.

  • To sum it up: It was a terrible experience. 005

  • I will sum it up with: It was a terrible experience. 006

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