An [ss Ancillary] participant accompanies another participant in the context of the event. The [ss Ancillary]’s participation is presented as similar to/in accordance with—but of secondary importance to—that of the other participant.

Sometimes called *comitative*.

Prototypical prepositions are [p en/with], [p en/without], [p en/along_with], [p en/together_with], and [p en/together]:

- [ex 001 "Could you walk <u>[p en/with Ancillary]</u>/<u>[p en/along_with Ancillary]</u>/<u>[p en/together_with Ancillary]</u> me to the store?"]

- [ex 002 "Can you go to the store [p en/without Ancillary] me?"]

- [ex 003 "Can we go to the store [p en/together Ancillary]?"]

A participant may be considered surplus/secondary for just the function or also at the scene level. [ss Ancillary] is the *function* for adpositions like [p en/with] that signal asymmetric togetherness or co-participation. More specific spatial and configurational (possession, part-whole, membership, etc.) relations take precedence at the *scene* level:

- [ex 004 "The girl is standing [p en/next_to Locus] her mother. ([ss Locus])"]

- [ex 005 "The girl is standing [p en/with Locus--Ancillary] her mother. ([ss Locus--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 006 "The girl is [p en/by Locus] the pigeon. ([ss Locus])"]

- [ex 007 "The girl is [p en/with Locus--Ancillary] the pigeon. (presumably, close to and interacting with it or paying special attention to it) ([ss Locus--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 008 "Put the fork [p en/with Goal--Ancillary] the knives. ([ss Goal--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 009 "I work [p en/with SocialRel--Ancillary] Steve. ([ss SocialRel--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 010 "I am [p en/with Org--Ancillary] Grunnings. ([ss Org--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 011 "people [p en/with Org--Ancillary] Grunnings (= Grunnings employees) ([ss Org--Ancillary])"]

Some predicates have a role of primary semantic importance expressed via a [p en/with]-PP.[^1]
In such cases, [ss Ancillary] should be the function only.
However, for many predicates it may be difficult to decide whether [ss Ancillary] should also be the scene role.
As a diagnostic, we test whether [p en/together_with] can be used—if not, there is another role of primary importance to the scene.[^2]

## Pure [ss Ancillary] (scene and function)

These license *together*-insertion:

- [ex 012 "I am admiring the paintings (together) [p en/with Ancillary] my friend<br/>[we probably infer that “friend” is paired with “I”, and thus also admiring or at least viewing the paintings, but this requires pragmatics]"]

- [ex 013 "I am admiring the paintings (together) [p en/with Ancillary] the statues (= I am admiring the paintings, and the statues as well)<br/>[we infer that “statues” is paired with “paintings”, and thus also being admired, but this requires pragmatics]"]

- [ex 014 "(Together) [p en/with Ancillary] the president, the prime minister signed the declaration<br/>[explicit: president is together with somebody in the context of signing; inferred: president is together with the prime minister, and they probably both signed]"]

- [ex 015 "I was traveling (together) [p en/with Ancillary] my friend/infant"]

- [ex 016 "my travels (together) [p en/with Ancillary] my friend"]

- [ex 017 "I fought (together) [p en/with Ancillary] her to cure cancer. (= we fought on the same side)"]

## [ss Ancillary] function only, predicate-licensed scene role

These resist *together*-insertion:

- [ss Agent--Ancillary]:
	- [ex 018 "Why don’t you talk (*together) [p en/with Agent--Ancillary] your friend?"]

	- [ex 019 "I fought (*together) [p en/with Agent--Ancillary] her for a week. (= we argued opposite sides)"]

	- [ex 020 "Please trade places (*together) [p en/with Agent--Ancillary] John."]

- [ex 021 "I’ll have to check (*together) [p en/with Recipient--Ancillary] my supervisor. ([ss Recipient--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 022 "He was not ready to share a house (*together) [p en/with Possessor--Ancillary] her. ([ss Possessor--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 023 "I agree (*together) [p en/with Experiencer--Ancillary] John. (= we share the same opinion) ([ss Experiencer--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 024 "Don’t compare me (*together) [p en/with ComparisonRef--Ancillary] my sister! ([ss ComparisonRef--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 025 "Why do people associate bats (*together) [p en/with Theme--Ancillary] death? ([ss Theme--Ancillary])"]

See further examples at [ss Theme].

## Item in one’s possession

If the object denotes an item that the governor has on hand in their possession, then the construal [ss Possession--Ancillary] is used:

- [ex 026 "I walked in [p en/with Possession--Ancillary] an umbrella. ([ss Possession--Ancillary])"]

## X<sub><i>i</i></sub> <i>bring</i>/<i>take</i>/... Y [p en/with] PRON<sub><i>i</i></sub>

This construction involves a [p en/with]-PP that is coreferent with the subject. The most basic meanings of these argument structures bundle motion, possession, location, and accompaniment. In such cases, the [p en/with] is analyzed as [ss Locus--Ancillary]:[^3]

- [ex 027 "I brought my <u>backpack</u>/<u>friend</u> [p en/with Locus--Ancillary] me. ([ss Locus--Ancillary])<br/>[emphasizes that the backpack/friend is located with the speaker]"]

    * I brought my backpack/friend.

When the verb in this construction bears an extended meaning of stative or abstract accompaniment, [p en/with] may be more appropriately analyzed as [ss Ensemble--Ancillary]:

- [ex 031 "The new year brings [p en/with Ensemble--Ancillary] it many challenges. ([ss Ensemble--Ancillary]) [cf. [exref 003 Ensemble]]"]

## [pspecial Together en/together]

The word [p en/together], when not followed by [p en/with], can denote reciprocal accompaniment and is analyzed like *[p en/with] each other*:

- [ex 028 "We were <u>sitting</u>/<u>eating</u>/<u>working</u> [p en/together Ancillary]."]

- [ex 029 "The duck and the chick are [p en/together Locus--Ancillary]. ([ss Locus--Ancillary])"]

- [ex 030 "John and Mary are [p en/together SocialRel--Ancillary] (= a couple). ([ss SocialRel--Ancillary])"]

## Versus [ss Ensemble]

[ss Ancillary] descibes a relation of an entity to an event/situation, whereas [ss Ensemble] is used for a relation directly between entities.

See also: [ss Instrument], [ss Manner]

[^1]: These can be called semantically core roles, though making a core/non-core distinction is in general problematic.
[^2]: For the preposition [p en/without], the test is whether [p en/together_with] expresses its negation.
[^3]: *Bring* and similar verbs (*take*, *carry*, etc.) specify motion-with-possession in their most literal sense (e.g., bringing a backpack). If applying supersenses also to subjects and objects ([Shalev et al., 2019](/bib/shalev_et_al_2019/); see also [Originator fn. 1](/Originator#fn:1), [Recipient fn. 1](/Recipient#fn:1)) we would use [ss Possession]/[ss Possessor] as the scene roles of the subject/object respectively. But if the object is volitional (e.g., bringing a friend), the possession is bleached away, so just [ss Agent]/[ss Theme] would apply to the subject/object. In either case, the [p en/with]-PP emphasizes that the other entity is located with the bringer, so it receives [ss Locus--Ancillary].