An Ancillary participant accompanies another participant in the context of the event. The Ancillary’s participation is presented as similar to/in accordance with—but of secondary importance to—that of the other participant.
Sometimes called comitative.
A participant may be considered surplus/secondary for just the function or also at the scene level. Ancillary is the function for adpositions like with that signal asymmetric togetherness or co-participation. More specific spatial and configurational (possession, part-whole, membership, etc.) relations take precedence at the scene level:
Some predicates have a role of primary semantic importance expressed via a with-PP.1 In such cases, Ancillary should be the function only. However, for many predicates it may be difficult to decide whether Ancillary should also be the scene role. As a diagnostic, we test whether together_with can be used—if not, there is another role of primary importance to the scene.2
These license together-insertion:
I am admiring the paintings (together) with the statues (= I am admiring the paintings, and the statues as well)
[we infer that “statues” is paired with “paintings”, and thus also being admired, but this requires pragmatics] 013
(Together) with the president, the prime minister signed the declaration
[explicit: president is together with somebody in the context of signing; inferred: president is together with the prime minister, and they probably both signed] 014
These resist together-insertion:
See further examples at Theme.
If the object denotes an item that the governor has on hand in their possession, then the construal Possession↝Ancillary is used:
This construction involves a with-PP that is coreferent with the subject. The most basic meanings of these argument structures bundle motion, possession, location, and accompaniment. In such cases, the with is analyzed as Locus↝Ancillary:3
Ancillary descibes a relation of an entity to an event/situation, whereas Ensemble is used for a relation directly between entities.
These can be called semantically core roles, though making a core/non-core distinction is in general problematic. ↩
Bring and similar verbs (take, carry, etc.) specify motion-with-possession in their most literal sense (e.g., bringing a backpack). If applying supersenses also to subjects and objects (Shalev et al., 2019; see also Originator fn. 1, Recipient fn. 1) we would use Possession/Possessor as the scene roles of the subject/object respectively. But if the object is volitional (e.g., bringing a friend), the possession is bleached away, so just Agent/Theme would apply to the subject/object. In either case, the with-PP emphasizes that the other entity is located with the bringer, so it receives Locus↝Ancillary. ↩
A surplus participant in relation to an event (or state/situation).